Californium is a synthetic radioactive element found on the bottom row of the periodic table, 连同其他 锕系元素. It was first discovered in 1950 at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley by bombarding curium with alpha particles (helium nuclei). Pure californium metal has a silvery-white appearance and is soft enough to be easily cut with a razor blade.
对浓缩形式的加利福尼亚的初步实验始于1958年. 从那时起, 已经鉴定了20种钙的同位素, 质量数在237到256之间. 其中一种同位素是bet36365体育投注-252, 首先从中子辐照的钚-239样本中分离出的是哪一种. 作为一种完全合成的元素(它不能在自然界中找到), californium-252 is very rare and is produced via neutron bombardment in high flux isotope 反应堆 or particle accelerators.
在这一页, we walk through some of the properties and uses of this unique isotope and provide additional resources for your reference.
bet36365体育投注属性 & 优势
Much has been learned about the properties of californium since its initial discovery in 1950. 这个元素的一些基本细节包括:
- Exhibits a melting point of 900 °C (1,652 °F) and an estimated boiling point of 1,470 °C (2,678 °F)
bet36365体育投注-252是最常用的bet36365体育投注同位素, particularly when it comes to nuclear and industrial applications (see next section for more details). 它是一个多产的中子发射器, 这意味着它在分裂时会释放出大量的中子. Just a single microgram of californium can produce approximately 170 million neutrons per minute. This unusual property makes it highly radioactive and a potential biological hazard. 如果处理得当, 然而, 这种强放射性在特定应用中是一种有价值的特性.
Californium-252 stands out from other californium isotopes for its greater stability and exceptional neutron emission capabilities. 事实上, it is presently the only californium isotope that is considered to have substantial practical value. Its current applications span a wide range of industries and new uses are continually being discovered. 一些最常见的用例包括:
- 核. Californium-252 can be used as a neutron source to initiate the nuclear fission process in 反应堆.
- 医疗. 在医学领域, the neutrons released by californium-252 can be used to target certain cancer tumors when other radiation treatments have failed.
- 石油与石化. 当用于 测井应用, californium-252’s neutron emissions provide drilling operators with critical data that allows them to better understand the surrounding area.
- 材料扫描. The neutron emissions from californium-252 can be used in various material scanning operations. In 中子激活分析 (PGNAA), 例如, 中子束可以用来照射样品, and the gamma rays emitted from it can be measured and used to determine the composition of the material. bet36365体育投注-252也可以作为中子源 便携式同位素中子光谱学，可以识别化学战材料中的内容.
尽管众所周知，bet36365体育投注-252的成本更高, it remains an extremely valuable neutron source due to its ability to undergo spontaneous fission, 还有生产成本. 影响加州价格的一些因素包括:
- 有限的可用性. Californium-252 is not a naturally occurring element and can only be produced in a high flux isotope reactor. Worldwide there are only two nuclear 反应堆 capable of producing Cf-252: High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and SMR3 at RIAR, 俄罗斯.
- 生产成本. The production process of californium-252 takes almost two years to complete from start to finish.
- 运输成本. 因为这种同位素的放射性很强, it requires the construction of specialized A类集装箱 to protect the contents from damage during the shipping process.
Californium-252 requires specialized shipping containers in order to be transported safely. Neutron-designated shipping containers must be certified as USDOT Type A, Specification 7A packages. 这些 A类集装箱 are specifically designed for the transportation of neutron contents between production facilities and end-user sites.
At 前沿科技公司(联邦贸易委员会)在美国，bet36365体育的加州海运集装箱是由bet36365体育自己设计和制造的. Our designs have been subjected to rigorous testing under a series of adverse conditions to validate their strength. This ensures that the containers are properly constructed to withstand any type of threat that may arise during shipping. 除了专门的集装箱运输, the transportation of californium-252 also requires detailed documentation from the consumer. This includes the relevant destination shipping information as well as an end-user statement that specifies how and where the contents will be used.
更多关于加州的事实 & 注意事项
自1950年发现以来, californium has been extensively characterized and has found many valuable uses in neutron source applications. 所有的加州同位素都是放射性的，半衰期各不相同. bet36365体育投注-252的半衰期是2.645年了，它也是唯一能自发释放中子的同位素.
因为它是一个很强的中子发射器, 处理bet36365体育投注-252时要格外小心，以免危害健康. It can enter the body through inhalation of airborne particles or by ingestion of contaminated foods or beverages. 一旦它进入人体, 65%会沉积在骨头上, 25%会到达肝脏, 剩下的会到达其他器官或被排出体外. 它会导致癌症，也会通过伽马射线辐射造成外部组织损伤. 尽管中子发射器可能非常危险, californium-252 comes in the form of a solid alloy wire and poses less risk of leaking radioactive contamination.
Californium-252 is a radioactive isotope of the californium element with the ability to emit neutrons. 这使它成为各种应用的重要中子源, 从核反应堆到材料扫描设备.
成立于1984年， 联邦贸易委员会 has established itself as a leading global supplier and manufacturer of custom californium-252 sources for a variety of industrial and research-related applications. 除了bet36365体育的中子源产品, we also design and construct our own high-quality Type A radioactive containers with 防水聚酯(WEP)屏蔽 在运输过程中提供最大保护的选项. All of our products comply with strict ODH, 核 Regulatory Commission, ASTM, and ANSI standards. 另外, 作为bet36365体育对安全和客户满意度承诺的一部分, we offer a return program that allows any 联邦贸易委员会-fabricated californium source to be returned to our facility for free disposal.
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